We’re all aware that good design starts from the users’ needs, not from data modeling, code design, or architecture.
The very first piece of information those users will be exposed to is not your database schema, a running app, and it’s certainly not your test suite:
Developers will start with your README
if only because it’s your project’s “landing page” on GitHub.
If your README is bad, depending on the situation they’ll just move on and find another tool, have trouble understanding what’s going on, or misuse your code. In a company setting, this is even more important as there might not be another source of knowledge about the software (Stack Overflow, blogs, etc.)
Here’s a few thoughts on how to write a great README.
Wear your salesman hat.
Why is this code important/interesting? The first paragraph of your README pitches the project, it tells the user what the intent is, and in the case of open-source software, why it may be more relevant to them than the competition.
The first 40 characters should be crystal clear about the what, the next 100 about the why, which means the whole thing should fit in a tweet.
The next paragraph should elaborate and mention key features, and possibly non-functional properties like performance (and in that case, point to benchmarks).
Adding badges that show your code is tested and up to date, helps your sales pitch.
Where do I start?
Your pitch won’t be enough, and users need to poke your software with a stick.
Resist the narcissistic urge to rant about the merits of your code, and make your first section about how to get the thing running. For a Rails app, this might be something like:
- make sure you have Ruby 2.0 and Bundler installed
- copy .env.example to .env
rails server, and head to
Any required configuration should be mentioned (ideally, if you have sane default, this will be minimal). Have in mind that your users’ environment might be different—expect them to use a fairly vanilla setup, but you might want to mention known incompatibilities/quirks, e.g. “if you’re running RVM instead of RBenv”, etc.
Letting users run tests when they start with your code builds trust. For an app, provide an example to manually “acceptance test” it, e.g.
http://localhost:3000, click on “sign in” and use “test/test” (works only locally). You should be greeted with a dummy catalogue of FizzBuzzs.
While a README should generally not be a full-fledged documentation, getting users to start tinkering with your library helps.
Provide a few code snippets for typical use cases. Here’s a trivial example taken from will_paginate:
## perform a paginated query: @posts = Post.paginate(:page => params[:page]) # or, use an explicit "per page" limit: Post.paginate(:page => params[:page], :per_page => 30) ## render page links in the view: <%= will_paginate @posts %>
Address known WTFs
Libraries in particular will have quirks, best uses, and use cases where they just don’t cut it. Perhaps it doesn’t work on large amounts of data, or is too heavy to make sense on small amounts of data, or a known incompatibility.
Don’t leave users in the dark… this is the place to share it with them or they’ll find out they’ve wasted their time. They’ll actually be grateful if you mention that your shiny gem doesn’t work with JRuby because it isn’t thread-safe!
Have more documentation? A wiki or a blog? Style guidelines? A process to welcome contributions? This is where you put it.
Finally, if your code is open source, mentioning its licence in the README will help its adoption in enterprise settings.