In light of our current move towards a service oriented architecture, we have decided to adopt continuous deployment as part of our process. For quite some time here at HouseTrip we have had Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery, so it came as a very natural and straightforward extension of our current practices.
Before diving deeper into the topic and considering that there are so many “continuouses” in this article, I’d like to give a brief overview of what Continuous Deployment is. The simplest way to explain it is, funnily enough, in relation to Continuous Delivery.
According to Martin Fowler, you’re properly doing Continuous Delivery if: > - Your software is deployable throughout its lifecycle > - Your team prioritizes keeping the software deployable over working on new features > - Anybody can get fast, automated feedback on the production readiness of their systems any time somebody makes a change to them > - You can perform push-button deployments of any version of the software to any environment on demand
The key distinction comes from that last step in the list and is essentially just a 1UPed version of it. In Continuous Deployment the final step is done automatically each and every time a change is merged to your production branch and the Continuous Integration process gives the green signal.
This is very well illustrated by the good folks at PuppetLabs in the following diagram
Because of our adoption of the other two continuous processes, implementation has been quite easy to do. As we’ve migrated all our services to Heroku and from our custom CI server onto TravisCI, all this took was the following 4 lines of code:
``` deploy: provider: heroku app: your-app-name api_key: “YOUR API TOKEN”
Understandably this may be too much effort and the devs at Travis feel your pain,
so they allow you to use their
travis tool (available as a gem) to run
travis setup heroku in your project directory which has the added benefit of
also encrypting your Heroku API key. The official documentation
allows for much richer functionality, so if your needs are a little more ‘custom’,
then do dig in.
Easy as it’s been, this switch does cause a bit of confusion. When do we deploy? Who is deploying? Who is announcing the deploy? Answer to all of these questions: ‘Not me!’
It is quite a weird feeling allowing ‘the machines’ to take over the deployment process but you do eventually get used to it quite quickly and it becomes quite freeing to know that, once you’ve done your job addressing comments on your PRs, everything will be taken care of for you and your shiny new feature will be pushed to production.
The two main concerns that arose from this system were that it hides deploy events and limits you in your ability to decide when to issue a deploy.
In all truth, and at the very least for services, deployments should not be a ‘big bang’ event as much as a regular and transparent part of your process and should therefore not even require notification. Obviously people do like to be kept in the loop, and find being notified as a useful feature. To address that we just used one of the many integrations available with Travis to notify us on a new deploy. We chose the webhook notifications since Slack, the chat app we’re using, doesn’t have direct support from Travis but integrates from Slack’s side. The change, again, was very simple:
Due to the way we have set up our travis.yml this notifies the chat rom of our choosing whenever a PR is issued against master or a PR gets merged (basically deploying the app)
One exception to the no ‘big bang’ rule is, typically, the large database migration. This is where you have to be a little bit more clever about your solution. Normally you would manually handle this process, probably deploying at night (or whatever your low traffic period is) and take the site off for an arbitrary length of time.
A good way to do it is to take a more incremental approach: write your code changes in a way that they support both database schemas, deploy(i.e. merge your code), run migration live, issue a PR to remove the fallback code. This migration may still lock your tables for longer than you can afford, in which case you could try dumping all your data into a different table, migrating that and switching between the two at the end. Obviously this does have its challenges but we have successfully done it in the past.
As for the manual deployments, they are always still an option, and they can happen outside of the CD process, but they should be minimized with the ultimate goal of complete automation depending on how well you manage to automate your infrastructure.
Overall, this system provides for a lot more discipline as you are actually guaranteed that once your work’s been merged it will instantly get deployed. That makes you think twice about whether you are actually done and ready to issue that pull-request.